A newly published study led by researchers from the University of Georgia and several partner institutions reveals a discovery that could lead to new control strategies for a tiny-but-persistent agricultural pest that causes enormous soybean losses.Microscopic soybean cyst nematodes (SCN) Iive in soil and are attracted to the root systems of soybeans. Once a field is infested, it is nearly impossible to root them out, said lead study investigator Melissa Mitchum, professor of plant nematology in UGA’s Department of Plant Pathology and Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics (IPBGG) in the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and Center for Applied Genetic Technologies.Invisible to the naked eye, SCN have unique hollow, protrudable mouth spears — called stylets — that they use to pierce through the root of a plant, injecting peptide effectors, which mimic the soybean’s naturally present CLAVATA3/embryo surrounding region (CLE) peptides to hijack the plant.After hatching from an egg in the soil, the juvenile nematode migrates into the root, where it sets up a feeding site and makes its way toward the circulatory system that the plant uses to transport nutrients to the rest of the plant.Once a root cell is chosen for feeding, the nematodes transform it into a syncytium, a mass comprised of hundreds of metabolically active cells that continue to secrete CLE, taking over the plant’s natural cellular processes to export the peptides back out of the cell to function as external signaling molecules to distant cells.This process diverts resources away from the plant in support of the nutrient demands of the developing nematode. At this point, nematodes change their morphology, turning from wormlike forms into sedentary, lemon-shaped bodies that pop out of the roots, becoming visible to the eye.Study resultsUsing knowledge that has been developed over the past two decades on how nematode CLEs function, the study, published in the journal New Phytologist, uncovered a new pathway that allows the nematode to disrupt the plant’s natural growth processes to divert resources for its own benefit. The study was also highlighted in commentary by the editors of New Phytologist. “We’ve discovered that early on, when the nematode delivers the CLE peptide to a root cell, the peptide has to reach a plant receptor that binds it so that you get a response in the plant. We knew that the nematode delivered the peptide into the cytoplasm of the cell, but the receptor is on the outside of the cell,” Mitchum said.The study shows that the nematode CLEs provide a way for the nematode peptide to get outside of the cell to interact with the plant protein receptor through the plant’s secretion system, a process that is not well-studied in plants.“To me it is fascinating because the nematodes have discovered how to co-opt that part of the plant — its own secretion system — but we don’t understand the secretion system they are taking advantage of,” Mitchum said. “If we can understand how they are doing it, we will likely uncover some novel aspect of plant biology that could have importance to other plant pathosystems. This effector protein is helping us understand plant biology, not just plant pathology.”Normally occurring plant CLE peptides regulate aspects of cell differentiation in the plant, communicating to the plant’s stem cells, which are constantly regenerating, whether to develop into a root cell, a leaf cell or a cell in another part of the plant.“The peptides in the plant — and there are many types — tell the plant how to regulate its growth and development. These nematodes have found a way to trick the plant by secreting these similar peptides in the root cell to make a feeding site,” Mitchum said. “Now we want to determine how the nematode CLE peptide forms that feeding site. That is why it is such a successful parasite — it has evolved this peptide that looks like and functions like a plant peptide, so they can put it into the root cell where it does not normally occur and trick the plant into supporting the formation of a feeding cell for the nematode.”Developing new control strategiesThe next step is to find novel methods to block the nematode peptides from getting out of the feeding cells.“We are trying to figure out how these nematode peptides function because we want to devise a way to interfere with that ability. If we can block the nematode peptides from getting out of the feeding cells, they will not form properly, and the nematode loses its nutrient source and dies,” Mitchum said. “If we can stop the nematodes from making those peptides or keep them from interfering with the processes in the cell, we can engineer different methods of resistance. That is why we study at this detailed level.”Soybean cyst nematodes are the No. 1 yield-reducing pest of soybean producers, robbing seemingly healthy fields of up to 30% of their yields — and costing the industry up to $1 billion every year.The primary management practice for soybean cyst nematodes is through developing genetic resistance in soybean varieties. Because SCN has a specialized host range, producers can control nematode damage by rotating fields to a non-host crop plant to reduce the population of nematodes in the field. However, the bodies of dead female nematodes form a cyst around them, protecting hundreds of eggs. These cysts can remain in the ground for years, protecting the eggs until a host crop is planted again and the nematodes reemerge.A troubling trendWhile creating genetically resistant crops is a very effective tool, SCN have adapted to overcome the source of resistance in the commonly used breeding line PI 88788, which is used in more than 90% of resistant varieties currently planted by producers. As a result, yields in resistant varieties can be reduced by up to 14 bushels per acre, according to The SCN Coalition, a public/private partnership of university researchers, national extension specialists and agriculture company representatives who are concerned about the evolving threat from soybean cyst nematodes.“We need to bring awareness to the increased resistance of SCN to the (PI 88788) resistance and come up with novel approaches to combat it. Targeting the mechanism we have found in this study would be a novel way of addressing this resistance,” she said.Because the symptoms of SCN infestation are often not visible above ground, it is difficult to communicate the severity of the problem to producers and the importance of basic science research to combat it.“If farmers are repeatedly planting the same resistant varieties, which most of them are, and they don’t realize what is going on below ground, the nematodes eventually become resistant to the resistant varieties. Over the past 20 to 30 years, soybean cyst nematodes have shifted from being unable to reproduce in these varieties to nematode populations that are highly aggressive and population densities are going up,” Mitchum said. “The only way growers can know they have a problem is to send in a soil sample to a diagnostic lab. This usually only occurs if they see aboveground symptoms and want to know if they have an issue, but these nematodes can be causing yield loss in the absence of any aboveground symptoms.”Mitchum says there are multiple potential targets to engineer new SCN resistance through the pathway they’ve discovered. Consequently, Mitchum and colleagues have filed several patents related to the research described in this study.“In order to disrupt this target, we can modify the receptor in the plant to retain its function in plant growth and development, but so it does not recognize nematode CLEs; we can try to block the ability of the nematode peptide to be trafficked through the plant’s secretion system; or we can prevent the nematode from making and secreting CLEs,” she said. “There are multiple ways to engineer resistance through this one pathway. If we can knock out a receptor, we can reduce infection, but because the nematode is co-opting a normal growth and development pathway, we have to do it in a way that is not disrupting plant development. This is a highly evolved interaction and we have to be able to understand it to precisely tweak it. We have to do it in a very targeted and specific way.”Assessing the threatBecause soybean cyst nematodes are such a widespread pest, Mitchum and UGA Extension plant pathologist Bob Kemerait, with the help of county agents, will launch a statewide survey in 2021 of all soybean producing counties in Georgia to determine current SCN levels and whether SCN-resistant crops are suffering greater losses due to the nematode’s adaptations against resistant varieties.While Georgia is not a major producer of soybeans — with 100,000 acres planted in 2019 at a value of about $240,000— more than 80 million acres were planted nationwide in 2019, with a production value of $31.2 billion, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Agriculture Statistics Service.“From a genetic standpoint, we are working with soybean breeders to diversify the germplasm and working with companies to get new SCN-resistant varieties out to producers while, in parallel, we are doing this kind of basic science research to understand the mechanisms used by the nematode to cause disease so we can interfere with them in a novel way,” Mitchum said.Zeroing in on the scienceBringing awareness to the importance of basic science and basic research is a message that needs to come through when discoveries like this are made, Mitchum said.“A lot of times the return on research investment is not as immediate or apparent as it is if you go out and do a field trial and get immediate results,” Mitchum said. “There has to be a balance — we need to invest in research that will have an immediate impact, but if we are going to come up with breakthrough technologies, it is going to be from an investment in this kind of long-term research.”Lead study author Jianying Wang was a former research associate in Mitchum’s lab. Research partners in the multi-institutional study included Richard S. Hussey, Emeritus Distinguished Research Professor of Nematology at CAES; and CAGT postdoctoral researcher Xunliang Liu; as well as colleagues from University of Missouri, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Iowa State University, North Carolina State University and Cornell University. Mitchum joined UGA in 2019 from University of Missouri’s Division of Plant Sciences and Bond Life Sciences Center.Funding for this work was from the National Science Foundation and the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture’s Agriculture and Food Research Initiative.For more information on research being performed at CAES, visit caes.uga.edu/research.
If you’ve driven east on the Long Island Expressway, you may have missed it. Or, you may have seen the blue sign that reads “Attractions at Exit 70” and dismissed the Shrine of Our Lady of the Island listed underneath it as some kind of roadside gathering of religious statues on a street corner.But winding through 70 acres of the Pine Barrens in Eastport, these peaceful paths seem more suited to a pilgrimage in the mountains of Spain, not sandwiched between two parades of weekenders heading out to the Hamptons. But here they are, completely silent except for a few birds calling back and forth in the trees above, a sanctuary that draws believers from all over to Long Island.At the end of the path is a man-made cavern with an empty pine box in the middle under a sign that reads, “You are looking for Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified. He has risen. He is not here. See the place where they laid him.”On one side a quarter-mile path is lined with the Stations of the Cross, wooden kneelers and codes that can be punched into your cell phone for a personal guided tour. A woman in the distance walks alone, stops to kneel at each one, and eventually disappears into the woods.Another woman holds a Bible and sits next to a small garden and a statue of the Virgin Mary, the entrance to the Rosary Walk, with 150 bushes sculpted into beads that end in a hedge shaped into a cross.The entrance to the Rosary WalkAbout a mile down the road a man strolls along the Avenue of Saints, where gifts like miniature statues, flowers and rosary beads are left at the feet of immortalized saints.There’s a chapel, an area for an outdoor mass, a coffee shop and a gift shop. But all of this leads to the main attraction, a towering statue of the Virgin Mary, “the Lady of the Island,” perched on a massive boulder.The shrine is Long Island through and through. The land was donated to the Montfort Missionaries by Crescenzo and Angelina Vigliota, Sr. in 1953 for a shrine to honor Mary. In 1957 the Harrisons of East Moriches gifted the rock and surrounding areas overlooking Moriches Bay. In 1975 the 18-foot statue of Mary and Jesus, designed by Rafael Desoto of Patchogue, was gifted by the Vigliotta family.The Beloved Disciple at the Foot of the Cross statue along the Stations of the Cross trailThe grounds also include a huge replica of the Pieta, the Holy Stairs—a massive concrete staircase leading to a likeness of Jesus on the Cross. Candles, left by past visitors, are still lit, and along the ledge there are messages written on stone. Some are prayers, some are pleas for healing. Others offer messages to the dead. More notes written in ink and marker cover the sign. And others simply offer words of gratitude like this one: “Thanks for everything —Justin.”On July 10 beginning at 10 a.m. the shrine will host the National Pilgrim Virgin Statue – World Apostolate of Fatima, a wooden hand-carved Image of Our Lady of Fatima given to the United States by the Bishop of Fatima in 1967, blessed by Pope Paul VI and crowned by Cardinal O’Boyle in the National Basilica in Washington, D.C., to spread the message of Fatima, which began in the summer of 1916 with the first apparition to three shepherd children by the Angel of Peace in Fatima, Portugal. Sign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York
Cristiano Ronaldo: “Of course, I would like to play with him because he is also one of the greatest in history. You really enjoy watching him and what he is doing in Juventus … For me, he is one of the best ever.”Setién and Valverde: “It is impossible to compare one with the other.” Messi: “It’s amazing to play with him and I think he is really special. If he is the best ever … I think there have been very special players at all times. What is certain is that he has been the best of the last 15 years and, in my opinion, is the best of all time. Playing with him the last six years has been incredible. “Neymar and his possible return: “I would like to have him on my team. He needs to decide what is best for him, since he is my friend and I want to see him happy and safe. When he is happy he is one of the best players in the world.”Most underrated player in the world: “There are many. Mourinho said it was me and he was right (laughs). There are many players like that, although for me it is Pjanic.” Ivan Rakitic has granted an interview for Bleacher Report, in which he has not given a solution to his future always questioned, but has left several headlines. The Barcelona footballer has faced user questions and confirmed that he would like to play with Cristiano Ronaldo, who would love to return Neymar to Barcelona or praised his partner Leo Messi, whom he considers the best of all the times. 2018 World Cup: “It changed me a lot. We had an experience of being there until the last day and losing it was really difficult. I felt all the love in the world and it was very special for us. I will never forget it.”Better with the one who has played and better against the one who has played: “This is easy, Messi vs. Messi.”Defend Messi: “Playing against him is so difficult … It’s like playing another sport.”Would you change a World Cup for the Champions League?: “Yes, no doubt. There are many opportunities to win a Champions League, but a World Cup is more difficult.”Defeat against Liverpool: “It was really difficult, a heartbreaking moment. We have to have a lot of respect for Liverpool. This is what football is about, to fight until the last minute.”Favorite stadium without counting the Camp Nou: “Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán”.Transfer Rumors: “It’s also part of football, you have to understand it and be ready in January. You have to be happy and think about the family. I have to play and if I play at Barça, then I’m happy.”Best defense: “Piqué. If you play with him, you see that he is the best of the last ten years.”Messi’s best goal: “The one in Getafe, the one in the Cup final against Athletic … Choosing one is difficult.”Your FIFA Score: “I just found out, that’s good (laughs).”Most fun player you have played with: “Dani Alves”.Always favorite player: “Robert Prosinicki”.Favorite rapper: “Eminem”.Barcelona kit: “I love it because it is similar to Croatia.”Your breakfast: “I drink coffee, although sometimes I go without breakfast. Other times toast.”Goalkeepers: “Neuer and Ter Stegen, but it’s really amazing to have them on your team.”Eurocup or Champions this year: “I prefer the Euro because I already won the Champions League.”His favorite goal: “My first with Basel. A volley with the left.”Croatia’s future: “I hope it goes well. There are many very good young people and I hope they can do better than the current generation.”
Donegal Action for Cancer Care have very serious concerns for eligble women aged 50 to 64 in the Inishowen area who are due to have their free breast-check mammogram this year.Cancer campaigner Betty HolmesThe unit is now not returning to Buncrana and eligible women must from now on attend the unit at Letterkenny.DACC had worked very hard from early 2007 to secure a BreastCheck Unit for the women of Donegal and continued their work for a second unit into Inishowen which began screening eligble women in November 2010. In 2013 census figures show there were 2915 women in the 50 to 64 years age group in Inishowen.BreastCheck is a Government-funded programme providing breast screening and invites women aged 50 to 64 for a free mammogram on an area-by-area basis every two years.The aim of BreastCheck is to reduce deaths from breast cancer by finding and treating the disease at an early stage.Back in May DACC raised their concerns with BreastCheck in Dublin when they received a phone call from a lady in Inishowen who had received an appointment to attend the unit in Letterkenny.At that time BreastCheck said there were no known plans to remove the service from Inishowen. At that time it was thought that the ladies circumstances made it easier at that time to attend the unit in Letterkenny. DACC already have serious concerns regarding the Breast Unit in Letterkenny as due to staffing difficulties it is manned only 3- 3.5 days per week and as far as DACC are concerned this is totally unsuitable to meet the needs of the women of the area. BreastCheck have today told DACC that it is operational 5 days per week. This is not so.“At this time we in DACC have to ask is this another important & lifesaving service that is being taken away. We are told that the vast majority of women in the area being invited for screening during this round, will have been screened in Letterkenny previously. This is not so. The Unit was in Buncrana in 2013 and wasn’t due to return until month or so ago.“We are very upset & annoyed that this has happened with no notice. No matter what way you look at it, it is the removal of a very important service from Inishowen. The Unit in Letterkenny is scheduled to stay till the end of the year so how will they be in a position to screen all the extra eligble women? Indeed it should not have happened, it is a disgrace. ” said Betty Holmes DACC.Back in 2010 when the announcement that a second unit was being located in Buncrana Mr Tony O’Brien who at that time was Director of the National Cancer Screening Service said there are in excess of 13,550 eligible women aged 50 to 64 living in the county.“Due to the high numbers of eligible women to be screened it is necessary to introduce an additional mobile screening unit to ensure all women in the county are offered equal access to breast screening in a timely manner. “I am delighted that BreastCheck can provide this additional service to women in north Donegal.”DACC are now asking what has changed? Why is it now not important to have eligble Inishowen women offered equal access in a timely manner? Has Inishowen moved closer to Letterkenny, has the map changed?As far as DACC are concerned this is not acceptable. We must again ask “ Where on the National agenda are Donegal women’s & people’s lives?It is very important for DACC to state clearly that wherever you live in Donegal if you receive an invite for your free mammogram please attend. Remember the live you save might be your own! If you are in the age group 50 to 64 years and have not received an invite please contact BreastCheck and get registered. BreastCheck is a Government-funded screening service that is offered to women aged between 50 and 64 every two years. A mammogram is a simple procedure and an appointment only takes about half an hour in total. BreastCheck encourages every woman in Donegal who receives an invitation for a mammogram go for her appointment.BreastCheck compiles a register (list) of women eligible for screening from information supplied by the Department of Social Protection, General Medical Services and private health insurance providers. The register contains a woman’s name, address and date of birth. This information is used to invite a woman for her mammogram when BreastCheck is screening in her area.BreastCheck advises all women aged 50 to 64 to make sure their name is on the BreastCheck register by calling Freephone 1800 45 45 55 or checking online at www.breastcheck.ie.Once on the register and known to the programme, a woman will automatically receive a letter and her invitation for a mammogram when BreastCheck is screening in her area.If a woman is not on the BreastCheck register, there are two simple ways to have her details added. She can either register herself online in the ‘self search and register online’ section of www.breastcheck.ie or there are self registration forms available from BreastCheck that can be completed and returned by Freepost. These forms are available on request by calling the BreastCheck information line on Freephone 1800 45 45 55.DACC EXPRESS CONCERN AFTER REMOVAL OF BREASTCHECK CANCER UNIT was last modified: August 15th, 2015 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:Betty HolmesbreaschckBreast CheckDONEGAL ACTION FOR CANCER CARE
Top Stories THE BADIt was a tough first quarter for Cardinals tight end Jermaine Gresham. Targeted once, he dropped a 1st-and-10 pass attempt on the Cardinals’ second drive. Then on drive No. 3, he was beaten off the line of scrimmage and allowed a sack, one that was split between Cliff Avril and Frank Clark. In more bad tight end news, Darren Fells limped off the field and later headed to the locker room with what was announced in the pressbox as an ankle injury.After a 3rd-and-11 pass attempt fell incomplete, the Cardinals tried a 39-yard field goal only to have Bobby Wagner make one of the more athletic plays you’ll ever see: He leaped over the center, barely grazing the backside of Aaron Brewer, and blocked Catanzaro’s kick with his forearm. Wagner also recovered the loose football. For Catanzaro, it was his first miss from the 30-39 yard range and second overall this season.Four times through three quarters, the Cardinals drove inside the Seattle 30 (21, 28, 25 and 18-yard lines), yet they only came away with a total of three points. On the latter possession, the Cardinals turned the ball over on downs when Johnson was stopped for no gain; he was tackled on the play by K.J. Wright and Michael Bennett. Also on the play, Mike Iupati appeared to hurt his left leg. However, he returned on the team’s very next drive. Special teams — never noticed nor talked about until something bad happens.Or in the Arizona Cardinals’ case, something awful happens.Really awful.Chandler Catanzaro’s 24-yard field goal hit the left upright in overtime before his Seattle counterpart did the same, and the Cardinals settled for a 6-6 tie with the Seattle Seahawks in front of a sold-out University of Phoenix Stadium on Sunday Night Football. Three times the Cardinals converted on third down during their one and only scoring drive of the first half. And all three were the result of Johnson touches. He caught six- and five-yard passes on 3rd-and-4 and 3rd-and-3, respectively, and he then rushed for three yards on 3rd-and-2. Johnson had 19 total touches through quarters one and two, running 13 times for 39 yards and catching six balls (on eight targets) for 44 yards.Through three quarters, Johnson had 122 total yards from scrimmage, extending his franchise record for consecutive games with 100+ yards from scrimmage to open a season to seven. Breaking it down, he rushed for 64 yards and added 58 receiving yards. Also, Johnson became the first player in team history with 900+ yards from scrimmage in the season’s first seven games. He entered needing 67 yards to set the mark. Johnson closed the game with a total of 171 total yards from scrimmage.Against the league’s top-ranked defense (283.6) and third-best against the run (74.6), the Cardinals gained 443 total yards with 132 coming on the ground. Johnson recorded his third straight 100-yard game and the fourth of his career. It was just the second time this season that the Seahawks allowed a running back to top the century mark. Back in Week 3, San Francisco’s Carlos Hyde finished with 103 yards on 21 attempts. Former Cardinals kicker Phil Dawson retires Earlier, Catanzaro had a kicked blocked. The Seahawks also blocked a punt.Seattle wasn’t without its own kicking woes as Stephen Hauschka, who had made two earlier field goals, pulled his potential game-winning 28-yard attempt way left.The Cardinals (3-3-1) dominated the game in nearly every phase of the game that didn’t include the scoreboard, finishing with more total yards (443-257), first downs (23-11) and a better time of possession (46:21-28:39).Carson Palmer passed for 342 yards, completing 29-of-49 attempts, David Johnson rushed for 113 yards, while Larry Fitzgerald caught nine balls for a team-high 70 yards.Defensively, the Cardinals limited the Seahawks (4-1-1) to 52 rushing yards with Deone Bucannon as the leading tackler with 13, 11 solo tackles.THE GOODTwo plays into the game, Larry Fitzgerald had set two more career milestones. His 17-yard catch extended his consecutive games streak with at least one reception to 186, tying Hines Ward for the fourth-longest in NFL history. It also moved him past Henry Ellard (13,777) and into 13th place on the league’s all-time receiving yardage list. It should be noted that the Cardinals longest pass play a week ago was only 14 yards. Comments Share Derrick Hall satisfied with D-backs’ buying and selling Seattle Seahawks head coach Pete Carroll, left, greets Arizona Cardinals head coach Bruce Arians after an NFL football game, Sunday, Oct. 23, 2016, in Glendale, Ariz. The game ended in overtime in a 6-6 tie. (AP Photo/Ross D. Franklin) It took the Seahawks just about the entire game before they crossed the 50-yard line. And once again, it was a credit to their special teams play as they recorded their second blocked kick. This time it was Tanner McEvoy getting a hand on Ryan Quigley’s fourth-quarter punt. Following a penalty on the Cardinals, the Seahawks began the drive on the Arizona 22. Four plays later, Hauschka connected on a 40-yard field goal to tie the game.STAT OF THE GAME1: Both the Cardinals and Seahawks missed a field goal in overtime, giving the former their first tie game since Dec. 7, 1986, at Philadelphia (10-10). Additionally, it was the first tie game without a touchdown since 1972.HE SAID IT“It always feels like a loss when you don’t win.” — Cardinals head coach Bruce Arians.NOTED— WR Jaron Brown exited the game in the second quarter and headed back to the locker room with what was announced in the press box as a knee injury.— Among the Cardinals’ seven inactives were injured players WR John Brown (hamstring/sickle-cell trait), LB Gabe Martin (knee) and DT Ed Stinson (toe).UP NEXTAfter back-to-back home games, the Cardinals will hit the road in Week 8. Grace expects Greinke trade to have emotional impact They travel to Carolina for a Sunday, Oct. 20 game against the Panthers, their final game before a bye week. Kickoff is scheduled for 10 a.m. with pregame coverage beginning four hours earlier on Arizona Sports 98.7 FM.The Panthers have eliminated the Cardinals from the playoffs in each of the past two seasons, including in the NFC Championship Game a year ago, 49-15.The Cardinals’ last won in Carolina in 2008 by a 33-13 score in the NFC Divisional Playoff.Since then, the Cardinals have lost four of the past six matchups.Overall, the Panthers lead 10-5 in the all-time series, which dates back to 1995. – / 46 The 5: Takeaways from the Coyotes’ introduction of Alex Meruelo